第三步：让学生用第三人称讲述重构后的独白，例如：When Mr. Li was on the way to school this afternoon, he...
第五步：让孩子在学校中走动，讲述今天写下的独白给他们听——注意！教师应明确允许孩子直接朗读手稿，而是引导孩子尽可能自然地把故事阐述出来；教师往往在教学内走动，提供语言鼓励北外成人英语口语培训，尤其是表示聆听者兴趣的语言，例如‘Oh, really?’‘Amazing!’‘I can only imagine...’等等，这些语言最好写在黑板上，或者制成讲义下发；
第一步：教师制作一个“Say whatever you like!”的标牌；
Young learners usually love imitating the sounds of the foreign language, in the form of short rhymes, chants,songs and dialogues. Thus, an important foundation for the development of the learners’ speaking skills islaid by involving them in activities aimed at helping them to remember language and act it out. Students feelmotivated, they have fun, and at the same time they acquire the pronunciation of the new language, andlearn vocabulary, valuable chunks of language and certain structures.
The methodology used to engage students in the kind of speaking practice described here usually followsthe well-known and often criticised PPP (presentation – practice – production) model: a practical example ofthis is that the teacher introduces a few words and chunks of language that the students will need tounderstand in order to be able to deal confidently with the new language, then presents a short dialogue,usually with the help of an audio (or video) recording. Next, the students are then asked to practise thedialogue (often through a mixture of choral repetition and pair work, while the teacher walks round theclassroom and corrects the students’ language). And finally, in the production phase, pairs of students willcome to the front of the class to act out the dialogue, showing the teacher and their classmates what theyhave learnt.
In this PPP model, both classmates and teachers might be impressed, becayse many students seem totremendously enjoy acting out dialogues or roleplays in front of their teacher and classmates, and thelanguage produced by the students is often (almost) error free (especially after a solid practice phase).
Nevertheless, the PPP model is frequently criticised as being insufficient for developing properconversational skills. Conversation is more than just repetition and rote learning. If we aim to help enable ouryoung learners to take part in conversations in the new language, we should not only furnish them with therelevant linguistic knowledge, but also help them develop abilities that go beyond acting out prefabricatedshort dialogues. That means we need to create opportunities that make it possible for them to learn to takerisks by gradually going beyond the boundaries of their rote-learning. This argument is watertight – after all,students would not be successful language users if in the real world all they could do was to act out the, say,900 dialogues and 14,000 sentences they had learnt from their course books.
So, should teachers simply discard any PPP-based language practice? I think that would be a big mistake,as long as we are aware that while this model is important, it is only part of what is needed. It is importantbecause it helps students to learn a solid basis of lexical chunks and language functions, and prepares themto a certain extent for some real-life situations, many of which are actually rather formulaic in terms of thelanguage used. It works fast and efficiently, and is ideal for use in large classrooms.
But when it comes to developing conversational skills, a pure PPP-based methodology is just not enough.Yet discussions in teacher training workshops have shown that while teachers often agree that languagelearning will only be successful if students can manage to ‘make the foreign language their own’ (i.e. whenthey start trying to say what they want to say, rather than what they have been told to repeat), those sameteachers also see it as very difficult, if not impossible, to initiate such processes with young learners, as theyfrequently perceive their students’ level of English to be ‘not sufficiently developed’.
So, to provide an escape route from the horns of that dilemma, here are a few suggestions of how we candevelop our students’ conversational skills.
转自 | 李晨老师教英文